Monday, May 25, 2020

Recovering from the Global Financial Crisis - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 1972 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? In the current situation of recovery of the global crisis, most consumers assess the value of the service they receive against the value of money they spend. Consumer perception of the service quality and the ways to improve the service quality are of vital important to the sustainability and profit of any organisation .But the low cost carriers (LCC) are providing cheap fares for flights with less services to the customer are making higher profit than the traditional flag carriers and other airlines .Consumption of this service raise question about the customer satisfaction that is happening and the role of service and its perception In the LCC industry. I am trying to shed light to this particular market segment by highlighting the role Ryanair. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Recovering from the Global Financial Crisis" essay for you Create order Ryanair is one the largest airlines in the world with over 63 Mn customers, 950 routes connecting 150 destinations with over 1200 flights each day across 26 countries (Ryanair annual report, 2009).They are the only profit making airlines and their motto is low cost and high volume and higher profit, with a lower profit margin for each customer. They have higher profit and lower costs and the cost comes down by 20% percent in each year by their various low cost strategies. These low cost strategies had considerable effect on the consumer services and policies. The research about consumer perception and expectation in the Ryanair found to be quite interesting and relevant and is this is why I am choosing this particular topic. The paper is a research proposal for successfully completing my Master of Business Administration In university of Wales Lampeter, UK. The proposal starts with a relevant title with a brief introduction of the chosen topic .This is followed by the reason fo r the choices of the particular topic. The aim and the objectives of the research are clearly mentioned thereafter. The following part is a literature review and it analyses the most relevant literatures related to the topic of consumer perception and satisfaction. The Research methodologies along with the data analysis for this research are mentioned thereafter. The expected findings of the research are mentioned In the end. PROVISONAL TITLE Consumer expectation and Perception of service and its quality in Low Cost Carriers (LCC)- A study based on Ryanair The dissertation is for finding out the the level of expectation of the LCC customers and up to what level are they satisfied. This will shed light to the recent success of the LCC like Ryanair. The literature review is done to understand the issues and views regarding the consumer expectation and satisfaction in general and particularly in the airline industry. The topic becomes more relevant as the sector is a service industry where the quality of service is assessed by the provided and experienced quality by the customer who consumes the service. The analysis that is being carried out is empirical and the research on the consumer perception and satisfaction of the Ryanair will expose the performance of the organisation in the LCC service industry. Even though the prevalence of high competition and the economic issue in the airline industry Ryanair was the only company to post a profit in the recession period continuously. The research will also reveal their consumer strategies a nd the reasons for their huge success. Aims and Objectives Aim: The dissertation tries to reveal the consumer perception and satisfaction in the LCC market with the analysis of Ryanair. The process will also reveal the expectation levels of the consumers in the LCC industry and particularly in the Ryanair. Various factors which have an impact in customer perception of the quality, both technical and functional quality is analysed and reviewed. Factors like the behaviour of the employees in service encounters and the impact of the service provisioning are taken into consideration for a better understanding of the chosen topic and its relevance. Objectives of the study: Analyse the literature review that is associated with the customer perception and expectation in the airline industry. Analyse whether the accelerated profit earned is a part of the growth of the LCC market and the role and impact of Ryanair strategies in consumer perception and satisfaction. Analyse the role of Ryanair and along with its competitors Use of various research methods to understand the consumer perceptions and the factors that cause consumer expectations and the level of that. Factors that need to be improved in the customer service of the LCC market will be identified and explained. LITERATURE REVIEW To analyse the service quality perceived it is important to understand the expected and perceived service quality by the customer in the end. For this purpose the GAP model proposed by Parasuraman et al (1985) is used. They contend that GAPS do exists when customer expectation are perceived by management (gap 1), when the perceived expectation are put as service quality specification (gap 2), service delivery (gap 3), when external communications happen to the customer (gap 4) and the gap between the perceived and expected service quality by the customer (gap 5).The final gap, that is the gap 5 is a function of all the other gaps and will be reflected in the perceived service quality by the customer. They further assert that there are several factors that the customers take into account of the organisation while making a valuation of the service quality. Reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security, understanding of customer needs, tangibles in the service encounter. These factors do have an impact on the perceived service quality by the customer. Sultan and Simpson (2000) further assert that out of these 10 factors, 5 factors are extremely important for the airline industry which the customers use frequently to evaluate the perceived service quality. They support the usage of the model in the airline industry also. These factors are reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, Empathy and Tangibles out of which reliability is the highest factor. Chau and Kao (2009) supported these factors and did further study on this area. Their findings revealed there exists significant gaps between the expected and perceived service quality by the customers making the gap 5 big in the case of airline industry. They further contend that there is a huge scope of improvement for all airlines careers including the low cost carriers and failure to do so will result in alternate choices made by the customers on the use of airlines. He further asserts the importance of pricing and he value of the service the customer is getting for the particular price. Such comparisons are normal and increases the gap. Frost and Kumar (2000) assert another factor that effect the final service quality in the airline environment. They contend that in airline industry the internal service quality by the internal service suppliers and customers (employees) play a major role in the perceived service quality of the customers. They also support the 5 factors that needed to be considered to maintain the high service quality and to reduce the gap 5. Johnston (1995) also support the importance of aforementioned 5 factors in any service environment. Ryanair is a highly profitable organisation for the past decade and the LCC market has been growing significantly during this period with Ryanair making the most out of it. Ryanair strategy is to keep the cost down and does not bother too much for the customer satisfaction part. They pe rform all the measures which are needed to keep their cost down. Their strategies include flying to secondary airports, extra charges for baggage, online check in, charges for on board food and water etc. They transfer all these cost cuts to their fares and make the fares cheaper for the customers. But they do this by deteriorating their service quality to their customers. Due to this the gap between the expected and measured service quality that prevails Ryanair is not considered as a best service provider. In fact they are the worst brand in UK according to Family brands Poll (2009).In spite of all these Ryanair is posting profits in each quarter and the link between profits and customer satisfaction becomes questionable in the case of Ryanair which makes this study very interesting and relevant. Ryanair strategies are very different from their competitors and specially from the traditional carriers whom they are competing with right now for acquiring their market share. They h ave used the global recession to attract more international European customers with their low fare strategy offering strict competition to the traditional carriers. Research Methodology In order to analyse the data which is required to analyse customer perceptions and satisfaction in the UK , various research methodologies have to be used Primary Sources Interviews: This method is mainly used for internal research and is a source of primary data. The interview or internal research will be with few managers of the customer service department of the Ryanair. The interviews will try to highlight or to give an insight on the view of customer service by the managers and what corporate culture Ryanair practice, the attitude of the employees etc. Although this is the easiest way to find out it is sometimes difficult to get a clear view of whats happening by interviewing some of the managers and their view points. In fact their view might be different from the actual real view is. So the relevance of data from these meeting are questionable and cannot be applied from a wider context. Questionnaires: These are the most efficient way of analysing data from customers and employees without much hassle. Moreover I will be able to create a questionnaire with a distinct set of questions which will aptly suit my topic. I can also design it acco rding to the need of data required and can be done separately for customers and employees of the firm. This will give a much better view customer perception and satisfaction and will be able to analyse the data appropriately. The issue with the questionnaire is the lengthy time it will take of getting a response and analysis of the data. Also completion of the questionnaire depends on the personal who is doing it and it varies according to the person haste. Secondary Sources Book Review: reading of books and other articles related to the section of customer perception and satisfaction contributes to the external research that is being undertaken by me .These books and articles will be precisely in the field of airlines to conform to the chosen topic Internet Research: A source of secondary research which will help in vast analysis of data particularly as Ryanair stories are celebrated vastly by the media. This will help a lot in accumulation of data for customer perception and satisfaction in the case of Ryanair. Documents: They will provide with details with organisational data like the annual report, investor report and financial report required for data analysis. Data Analysis : Both Quantitative and Qualitative anaylsis has to be performed for data analysis. Quantitative analysis: It is related to the number of data or units of different data. Charts, tables, graphs are derived from the data. Various methods like project management can be used for analysis of data obtained. The data can be obtained from various reports and from the information gathered from questionnaire. Qualitative analysis: Qualitative data gathered from the interview, questionnaire are analysed on the basis of the quality of description. Usage of computer software is recommended because this will reduce complexity and provide flexibility for the usage and processing of data Form and structure of presentation of the dissertation The report will be in written format which will include tables, charts and graphs which are used for analysis. Findings-Projected The report is projected to analyse the particular topic its applicability and for finding the scope of improvement of it. Research Time Table Months(February-June)  Months Feb March april May June Weeks 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Problem Identification                     Literature Review                     Research Design                     Choice of Methodology                     Data Sources                     Data Collection                     Data Analysis                     Writing up Draft                     Editing                     Final Document                     Binding of Document                    Â

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Alabam A Big Part Of Alabama s Geography - 2029 Words

Alabama By Isaac Hilton ‘Climbed lone Nebo’s Mount to see, Alabama, Alabama!’ You painfully hike up the last bit of Alabama’s highest mountain, with an elevation of 2,411ft. When you get to the top, a feeling of pride washes over you for conquering this colossal mountain. You’re so thirsty, you could drink the whole ocean. Instead, you drain the rest of your quarter-full water bottle. You’re as starving as a shark, ready to kill its’ prey. You eat your whole sandwich in 30 seconds. Now you sit down, feel the breeze, and enjoy the beautiful Alabama scenery. With the clear blue skies, you can see beautiful trees, bushes, and grass growing abundantly throughout the mountain. Wildlife such as deer and rabbits flock around the sparse areas of†¦show more content†¦The Black Belt is roughly 300 miles long and runs through Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and Mississippi. In addition, it has rich, dark soil which makes it great farming and agricul ture. Another region is the Cumberland Plateau. It is known for its red clay soil. Along with that, It has rolling hills, sandstone ridges, and other great things in this stupendous land region. Another addition to these neat regions is the Gulf Coastal Plain. It has many wetlands which are vital sources of shelter for many birds and fish, but almost half of the wetlands were destroyed for agriculture. Right now Alabama is trying to reverse it and bring back those wetlands. Within all of these land regions, Alabama has an interesting climate. The average summer temperature is 91℉, and an average winter temperature of 51℉. The record high and low are a stunning 116℉ and -27℉! Wow! Those are some spectacular temperatures! Not only that, but Alabama’s average yearly rainfall is 56 inches! That’s a lot of rain! Plus, Mobile, Alabama is one of the rainiest cities in the U.S.A., having 67 inches yearly! Alabama also has a very diverse landscape. I t has tons of rivers, including the Alabama River which runs 318 miles long! It also has mountains, including Cheaha Mountain, beaches, like Orange Beach, and valleys such as the Black Belt Valley. All of this landscape and climate is mostly because of Alabama’s location, a Southeastern state. It is bordered by Mississippi on

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The National Violence Against Women - 2318 Words

Millions of adults each year in the USA are affected by intimate partner violence (IPV). â€Å"The National Violence Against Women (NVAW) survey conducted from November, 1995 to May, 1996 indicates that each year an estimated 8.5 million intimate partner victimizations occur among the US population ages 18 and older† (Fang Corso, 2008, p. 303). â€Å"As recognition of IPV as a serious societal problem increases, more attention has been directed to risk and protective factors for IPV perpetration, especially the link between child maltreatment, victimization and future perpetration of IPV† (Fang Corso, 2008, p. 303). More than 80 percent of all victims are maltreated by one or both parents. Several studies have found that children who have experienced child maltreatment (neglect, physical abuse, or sexual abuse) are more likely as adults to conduct IPV. Of these children, 54 percent suffered neglect, while almost a quarter, 23 percent, suffered physical abuse and near ly 12 percent of the victims were sexually abused (Fang Corso, 2008). According to the National Child Abuse Statistics, every year in the United States more than three million reports of child abuse are made, involving more than six million children. In 2012, 78.3 % of those abuse reports were for child neglect. â€Å"While the number of child maltreatment claims is likely an underestimate of the true prevalence, there are still 3.3 million claims of abuse per year in the US, with approximately 30% being confirmed afterShow MoreRelatedLiving Free From Violence Is A Basic Human Right Essay1475 Words   |  6 PagesLiving free from violence is a basic human right, yet millions of women and girls suffer disproportionately from violence both in peace and in war, at the hands of the state, in the home and community. 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However, it would be a great surprise on their part to find that domestic violence is quite common in Bhutan despite comparatively slow rate of urbanization than the neighboring countries. Domestic violence is a well-known and often-used term. Although it may describe various violent relationships, such as child abuse, elder abuse, it is most commonly applied to an intimate relationship betweenRead MoreThe Violence Against Women Act914 Words   |  4 PagesPolitical Context Long before its enactment on September 13, 1994, the foundation for the Violence Against Women Act was being constructed. More than 140 years ago, members of the U.S. government were working to end the injustice of violence against women when, in 1871, Alabama was the first state to make it illegal for a man to beat his wife (U.S. Department of Justice, 2010). In 1967, one of the first domestic violence shelters in the country opened its doors in Maine; and from that time until 1994, progressRead MoreKnowing Our History Is Vital To Pursuing Our Future. Our1245 Words   |  5 PagesKnowing our history is vital to pursuing our future. Our history needs to be our guide in making the changes necessary to end the violence. Violence against women has been sanctioned throughout history. We need to know the struggles of those who came before us. By knowing our history we honor their spirits, we keep the flame of justice alive and it brings us to the stark reality that we have much work sti ll to do. History of the Battered Women’s Movement 753 BC During the reign of Romulus in RomeRead MoreThe National Coalition Against Domestic Violence860 Words   |  4 PagesDomestic violence is violent or aggressive behavior pattern in a relationship between two partners within the home. Domestic Violence typically involves one of the individuals I the relationship to be controlling and wants to take advantage and control of the other. The University of Louisiana at Monroe needs a new organization that can make a difference and give both women and men a sense of hope and safety; this solution should be the National Coalition against Domestic Violence (NCADV). The NationalRead MoreDomestic Violence And Sexual Violence1535 Words   |  7 Pagesworld, one in every three women has been coerced into having intercourse, beaten, or abused during some point in her lifetime (Domestic Violence Statistics, 2015). The topic that will be studied with the paper is intimate partner violence or another term that can be used is domestic violence. Domest ic violence or intimate partner violence is the systematic pattern or control or power perpetuated by one partner against another (National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, n.d.). Throughout the paper

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Health Care Functions Of Whitlam Memorial Hospital †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Health Care Functions Of Whitlam Memorial Hospital. Answer: Introduction: Organizational structure acts as a backbone on which the work processes and the policies of the organisation rely and are built to achieve the objectives (Dischner, 2015). The relationship among the management and the employees and the flow of emotions, ideas and informations are lay out formally through the organisational structure of the organisation (Dischner, 2015). The health cares organisations functions very specifically, executing the services that are of high quality to the patients each and every hour of the day (Dischner, 2015). Hence, the health care organisations for fulfilling such service requirement are to follow the erect organizational structure having different management layers. The different layers of the management are designed in such a way to ensure that the tasks are done exactly and correctly (Dischner, 2015). Whitlam Memorial hospital is also following the traditional bureaucratic structure where the organisation works under the different management layers (Melrose, 2018). The bureaucratic organisational structure includes the hierarchy that moves from the executives to regional managers and then the department managers and at the base shift supervisors works with the frontline employees. The decision making is to pass through the different level of the organisation as compared to the organization that is flat (Melrose, 2018). For example, the refund case has to pass first through the frontline employees and then towards the shift supervisor and after their approval, it passes to the store management the retail outlet in the company with bureaucratic structure. In the origination where the structure is bureaucratic, their authorities are usually centred at the crest, and information usually surges from the crest to down (Melrose, 2018). This encourages the culture of the company to be foc used on standards and rules, where the operational procedure is strictly controlled with certain best methodologies and supervision (Singh, 2013). The current traditional bureaucratic structure: Top-level managers in bureaucratic organizational structures exercise a great deal of control over organizational strategy decisions, which is ideal for business owners with a command and control style (Singh, 2013). Deliberate decision-making moment under the bureaucratic structure is to be shorter in a high organizational arrangement because only few individuals are involved in the structure (Singh, 2013). Best-practices and Standardization are over and over again highlights in companies with tall managerial structures, making sure that work is again and again completed resourcefully and efficiently. Disadvantages Bossy structures can dishearten innovation and creativity throughout the association. No matter how clever a company owner is, it is almost impossible for a solitary individual to produce the variety of planned ideas probable in a large, interdisciplinary cluster (Abbasi, 2017). Front-line workers may get less fulfilment from their jobs in a severely bureaucratic association, increasing worker earnings rates. Organization bound by severe control can, in addition, find them a lesser amount able to become accustomed to changing circumstances in the industry, marketplace or the legal atmosphere (Abbasi, 2017). Mission and vision: A vision and mission are critical as well as standard elements of a company's managerial strategy. Most well-known companies build up organizational undertaking statements and revelation statements that serve as introductory guides in the enterprise setup of the company objectives (Dharmadasa, 2010) The business then develops tactical and strategic plans for objectives. These statements play 3 main roles: commune the function of the relationship to stakeholders; update strategy expansion, and develop the reckonable objectives and goals by which to measure the accomplishment of the organizations approach (Dharmadasa, 2010). Vision and Mission provide a vehicle for comprehensively communicating an organizations principle and values to all main stakeholders. The stakeholders are those main parties which have some authority over the association or the stake in its expectations (Dharmadasa, 2010).Vision and Mission create a goal for strategy expansion. That is, one decisive factor of a go od quality policy is how well it helps the firm attain its set mission and future vision (Garnett, Lawes, James, Bigland Zander, 2015). Vision statements are significant as such statements provide the bridge between the organisation strategies and mission which develops the sense of responsibility among the employees and thus achieving the objectives of the organisation. Hence, the better vision statements generate restlessness and tension as per the status quo that is; the company to promote the spirit of continuous improvement and innovation (Garnett, Lawes, James, Bigland Zander, 2015). Vision and mission both relate to the organizations aspirations and purpose and are communicated normally in the form of certain brief written statements. The mission statement of the organisation results in communicating the reason related to the presence of the organisation, the purpose of the organisation and how the company aspires to serve the main stakeholders (Garnett, Lawes, James, Bigland Zander, 2015). The vision statement is future-oriented, narrower, the organizations declaration purpose and aspirations. Vision and mission together result in developing the guiding strategy, help to communicate the purpose of the organisation to the stakeholders and inform about the objectives and the goals are set for determining whether the structure of the organisation is working properly according to the objectives (Garnett, Lawes, James, Bigland Zander, 2015). Mission, vision and the goals provide the guide of high level and the organisation structure results in the specific guide f or achieving the objectives and goals, the failure and success of the strategy and also satisfaction related to the different objectives that are stated in the mission statements (Gunasekare, 2016). The secret of developing the better mission statements is to focus on the reason that is related to the organisation existence and not on the services and the products which the organisation provides (Gunasekare, 2016). Organisational Structure: WMH is restructuring itself and increasing the number of the beds form 130 to 250 according to the increase in the capacity for the communities based clinics in the specialities. Hospital is planning to provide certain other new facilities and treatment as per the growing needs of the community, such providing services related o the treatments including, paediatric, cardiovascular, cancer, trauma services, aged care services, community and the renal services. The Matrix organisational structure will be the best structure that is to be applied by the Whitlam Memorial hospital for its restructuring. The matrix structure in a great way accommodates constantly as per the changing landscapes and the requirement of the organisations (Saunila, Mkimattila Salminen, 2014). Matrix is the combinations of the single and the cohesive structure which in turn results in the dual authority system. The matrix organisational structure instead of applying the structure of linear management structure utilizes the dual-reporting associations. Persons, for the completion of the task regardless of the department to which they belong, have to report diverse departments (Saunila, Mkimattila Salminen, 2014). Collaboration is also considered as the significant feature in matrix organisational structures, particularly in a situation where teams are formed, drawing persons from the diverse division of the institute, for the specific project accomplishment (Saunila, Mkimattila Salminen, 2014). The matrix organisational structure is beneficial for the reason of the efficient and the faster flow of the information among the organisation (Zgrzywa-Ziemak, 2015). The information is exchanged at the speedier and the free flowing manner because of the closer cooperation between the organisation and the employees. Data Sharing is also encouraged by the matrix structure, flowing horizontally and vertically, so everyone can access the information as required. The matrix structure results in the rapid flow and exchange of the information with the improving response rate for the changes and the unforeseen circumstances (Zgrzywa-Ziemak, 2015). The structure is more remarkable as it involves the larger number of departments within the organisation. Matrix structure utilizes the resources in an efficient and the cost effective way. The structure results in the department to protect it from the excessive spending on the tools, manpower, and equipment as the same can be sourced from the ot her sections (Zgrzywa-Ziemak, 2015). The structure is also beneficial in the personal and the professional growth of the managers, matrix structure tends to produce the proficient managers and the specialised workers through the information sharing and the experiences which they obtain while working in the different projects of the organisation and hence the structure also results in improved dedication and sense of commitments related to the jobs (Zgrzywa-Ziemak, 2015). Conclusion: Among the strength, there are certain limitations among the Matrix structure, such as creating confusion as a result of the duals the dual authority system. This also results in lack of control and actual loss of the managers in controlling the employees of their own department. This also lessens the sense of accountability and responsibility along the employees. Increases the initial and setup cost of the organisation. The conflicts awaken due to the dual authority among the employees develops the feeling of frustration and dissatisfaction. Whitlam Memorial hospital is restructuring itself into the larger hospital with the increased spaces and treatment facilities, Matrix is the better option as it is suitable for the larger structure organisations, the adaptability and flexibility of the structure will be a better option for the fast pace organisation WHM (Gunasekare, 2016). The different department in the WHM will require the decentralisation process that is to encourage the decision making process at the different level of the different department, for managing the larger organisation WHM requires the flat structure that is the authority is to spread out for taking the decision, hence looking into such factors it is believed that the matrix structuring will be best suitable for the restructuring of the WMH hospital. (Gunasekare, 2016) References Abbasi, B. (2017). Transformational leadership and change readiness and a moderating role of perceived bureaucratic structure: an empirical investigation.Problems And Perspectives In Management,15(1), 35-44. Dharmadasa, P. (2010). Mission Statements and Company Performance Revisited.SSRN Electronic Journal, 14(2),10-12. Dischner, S. (2015). Organizational structure, organizational form, and counterproductive work behavior: A competitive test of the bureaucratic and post-bureaucratic views.Scandinavian Journal Of Management,31(4), 501-514. Garnett, S., Lawes, M., James, R., Bigland, K., Zander, K. (2015). Portrayal of sustainability principles in the mission statements and on home pages of the world's largest organizations.Conservation Biology,30(2), 297-307. Gunasekare, U. (2016). Mission Statements in the Leisure Industry: Are They Strategic?.SSRN Electronic Journal. Melrose, S. (2018). Mentoring non-traditional students in clinical practicums: Building on strengths.Clinical Nursing Studies,6(3), 39. Saunila, M., Mkimattila, M., Salminen, J. (2014). Matrix structure for supporting organisational innovation capability.International Journal Of Business Innovation And Research,8(1), 20. Singh, P. (2013). Transforming Traditional Bureaucratic Management Practices By Employing The Collegial Leadership Model Of Emancipation.International Business Economics Research Journal (IBER),12(8), 953. Zgrzywa-Ziemak, A. (2015). The Impact of Organisational Learning on Organisational Performance.Management And Business Administration. Central Europe,23(4), 98-112.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

School Uniform Debate Should They Be Allowed Essay Example

School Uniform Debate: Should They Be Allowed Essay The debate over the compulsory use of school uniform is not a new issue. This debate is taking place since years and parents and administrators of schools provide arguments for or against the compulsory use of school uniform. A large number of parents and administrators consider the use of school uniform something forcibly imposed as a mandatory rule. Where as, other parents and administrators consider that the mandatory rule to wear school uniform will result in broad spectrum benefits (Veigle, p. 3). This issue remains still unresolved. The present essay provides the arguments in support of school uniform as well as arguments against the mandatory wearing of school uniforms. The paper ends with the concluding remarks of the author in which the author presents his voice on the mandatory wearing of school uniform.School Uniforms Should Be AllowedThis section of the essay provides arguments that strongly support the mandatory use of school uniform.School Uniforms Improve Academic Perf ormance: It is widely accepted among a large number of educators and parents that academic performance is enhanced when students wear uniform. They justify their statements by saying that if the students are allowed to come in dresses of their choices then their concentration is diverted from their academics to their wardrobes. So it is widely approved by several sociology experts that students will be able to concentrate more towards their academics when they will be wearing school uniforms as they would not have to pay attention towards the selection of a dress daily to wear in the school. Experts also insist that school attendance is increased when students wear uniforms (Sher, p.21).School Uniforms Improve Behavior: It is widely believed by experts and educators that the behavior of students wearing school uniform improves. A firm environment is dictated when students wear school uniforms. Students seem inclined more towards the school discipline and thus a reduction in the viol ent behavior occur (Holloman, p. 33-38).School Uniforms Improve Social Outcomes: It is believed that social outcomes of students wearing school uniforms improve a lot. This is because most of the time, conflicts among students arise due to the standard of the dress selection. Some students feel proud due to their clothing and thus they make fun of other students wearing less expensive clothes. School uniforms improve the social environment (Holloman, p. 33-38).School Uniforms Are Less Expensive: School uniforms reduce the cost of buying expensive clothes and thus become more economical for parents. School uniforms are far less expensive than trendy dresses (DeMitchell et al. p. 31-49).School Uniforms Should Not Be AllowedSchool Uniforms Inhibit Self-Expression: The self-expression of students is badly affected by the mandatory use of school uniforms. Developmental stages of a child are highly influenced by the self-expressive power of a child and when a child is not allowed to wear clothes of his/her choice, its development is affected as they do not find any way to express them (Hethorn, p. 44-48).School Uniforms Strip Individuality: When students are forced to wear school uniforms, they lose their individuality. Thus, it can be said that the school uniforms do not promote cultural diversity. Human nature requires socialization that is tried to be controlled by imposing the mandatory use of school uniforms (Gilbert, p. 3-18).School Uniforms Are Not Comfortable For All: It is argued that school uniforms do not make all the students feel comfortable in the texture and style of the uniforms. Different people prefer to wear different types of textures and styles of clothes. Students become limited to wear according to their comfort due to the mandatory wearing of school uniforms. If students would not feel comfortable in their school uniforms then they would not be able to concentrate on their academics and thus their learning abilities will be reduced (Essex, p. 38).School Uniforms Aggravate Violent Behaviors: Some students possess rebellion nature by birth. They simply cannot obey rules. When they are forced to wear school uniforms their behavior become more violent. They find out ways to show their opposition to the mandatory wearing of school uniforms such as they alter the uniforms in a way that is totally different from the standardized style of the school uniform (Joanne, p. 1).ConclusionIt can be concluded after viewing arguments both favoring and against the mandatory wearing of school uniform that school administrators should not mandate the wearing of school uniform. Though arguments in favor of mandatory wearing of school uniform apparently seem very convincing but in practice, these arguments can not be applied. Though theory can provide strength to the arguments that wearing school uniform makes improvement in the behavior and academic performance of students but in real life these supporting arguments do not provide any help. And, if mandatory wearing of school uniform does not do anything good to students then its use should be avoided. Students should be given full freedom to wear what they want to wear. By wearing dresses of their choice, they will be able to express themselves as well as their individuality would not be affected. They will be able to wear dresses in which they feel more comfortable and thus they would be able to concentrate more towards learning.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Facts and Figures on Christians of the Middle East

Facts and Figures on Christians of the Middle East The Christian presence in the Middle East dates back, of course, to Jesus Christ during the Roman Empire. That 2,000-year presence has gone uninterrupted since, especially in the countries of the Levant: Lebanon, Palestine/Israel, Syria- and Egypt. But its been far from a unified presence. The Eastern and Western Church dont quite see eye to eyehavent for about 1,500 years. Lebanons Maronites split off from the Vatican centuries ago, then agreed to return to the fold, preserving to themselves rites, ​dogmas, and customs of their choice (dont tell a Maronite priest he cant marry!) Much of the region either forcibly or voluntarily converted to Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries. In the Middle Ages, the European Crusades attempted, brutally, repeatedly but ultimately unsuccessfully, to restore Christian hegemony over the region. Since then, only Lebanon has maintained a Christian population approaching anything like a plurality, although Egypt maintains the single-largest Christian population in the Middle East. Here’s a country-by-country breakdown of Christian denominations and populations in the Middle East: Lebanon Lebanon last conducted an official census in 1932, during the French Mandate. So all figures, including total population, are estimates based on various media, government and non-government organizations’ numbers. Total population, including non-Christians: 4 millionPercent Christian: 34-41%Maronite: 700,000Greek-Orthodox: 200,000Melkite: 150,000 Syria Like Lebanon, Syria has not conducted a reliable census since French Mandate times. Its Christian traditions date back to the time when Antioch, in present-day Turkey, was early Christianity’s center. Total population, including non-Christians: 18.1 millionPercent Christian: 5-9%Greek-Orthodox: 400,000Melkite: 120,000Armenian-Orthodox: 100,000Small numbers of Maronites and Protestants. Occupied Palestine/Gaza the West Bank According to the Catholic News Agency, â€Å"In the last 40 years, the Christian population in the West Bank has slumped from about 20 percent of the total to less than two percent today.† Most Christians then and now are Palestinians. The drop is a result of the combined effect of Israeli occupation and repression and a rise in Islamic militancy among Palestinians. Total population, including non-Christians: 4 millionGreek Orthodox: 35,000Melkite: 30,000Latin (Catholic): 25,000Some Copts and a small number of Protestants. Israel Israel’s Christians are a mixture of native-born Arabs and immigrants, including some Christian Zionists. The Israeli government claims 144,000 Israelis are Christians, including 117,000 Palestinian Arabs and several thousand Ethiopian and Russian Christians who migrated to Israel, with Ethiopian and Russian Jews, during the 1990s. The World Christian Database puts the figure at 194,000. Total population, including non-Christians: 6.8 millionGreek Orthodox: 115,000Latin (Catholic): 20,000Armenian Orthodox: 4,000Anglicans: 3,000Syrian Orthodox: 2,000 Egypt About 9% of Egypt’s population of 83 million are Christians, and most of them are Copts- descendants of Ancient Egyptians, adherents to the early Christian Church, and, since the 6th century, dissidents from Rome. For more details about Egypt’s Copts, read â€Å"Who Are Egypts Copts and Coptic Christians?† Total population, including non-Christians: 83 millionCopts: 7.5 millionGreek Orthodox: 350,000Coptic Catholic: 200,000Protestant: 200,000Small numbers of Armenian Orthodox, Melkites, Maronites and Syrian Catholics. Iraq Christians have been in Iraq since the 2nd century- mostly Chaldeans, whose Catholicism remains deeply influenced by ancient, eastern rites, and Assyrians, who are not Catholic. The war in Iraq since 2003 has ravaged all communities, Christians included. A rise in Islamism diminished Christians’ security, but attacks on Christians appear to be receding. Nevertheless, the irony, for Iraqs Christians, is that on balance they were far better off under Saddam Hussein than since his downfall. As Andrew Lee Butters writes in Time, About 5 or 6 percent of Iraqs population in the 1970s were Christian, and some of Saddam Husseins most prominent officials, including Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz were Christians. But since the American invasion of Iraq, Christians have fled in droves, and constitute less than one percent of the population. Total population, including non-Christians: 27 millionChaldean: 350,000 – 500,000Armenian Orthodox: 32,000 – 50,000Assyrian: 30,000Several thousand Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic, and Protestant. Jordan As elsewhere in the Middle East, the number of Jordan’s Christians has been declining. Jordan’s attitude toward Christians had been relatively tolerant. That changed in 2008 with the expulsion of 30 Christian religious workers and an increase in religious persecutions overall. Total population, including non-Christians: 5.5 millionGreek Orthodox: 100,000Latin: 30,000Melkite: 10,000Protestant Evangelical: 12,000

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Population growth and natural resource availability Research Paper

Population growth and natural resource availability - Research Paper Example The awareness regarding the need of the production system is increasing day by day in order to incorporate the goals of sustainable development. For managing this it is important that the natural resources are renewable, as they are considered to be the indicators for sustainability of the economic dynamics. This approach indicates that the natural resources are considered to be a link between environment and societies. The more recent subject in discussion related to resources and population growth is considered to be the significance of the quality of environment which is measured by the absence of water and air pollution and the stock of forest in a particular region. According to this view, environment may not be considered as a factor which limits the productivity with the expansion of population but it would rather be defined as factor whose quality is degraded with the increase in population. The expanding population increases the need for an arable land; it is a main cause behind deforestation and also encourages the conversion of forests into land for using it for different purposes. It is also considered to be the major cause of air, water and land pollution. On the other side environmental degradation may impose an effect on the natural resources reducing the marginal product of the labor through promoting lower incomes (Hinrichsen and Robey). In the past, the alarming situation was considered to be the diminution of natural resources. There are many scientists who have been calculating that duration till which the reserves of oil and coal will last. Therefore at present the interaction between man and natural environment is considered to be a source of alarm. In every natural ecosystem, the increase in population imposes a great pressure on it. This pressure becomes more immense in case of the human population, as this increase is not just numerical but also brings along the diversification and creation of new needs. This qualitative